TTL

"Transistor Transistor Logic"

Basic voltage levels

VOHmin (minimum HIGH output voltage) 2.4V
VOLmax (maximum LOW output voltage) 0.4V
VIHmin (minimum HIGH input voltage guaranteed to be recognised as logic 1) 2V
VILmax (maximum LOW input voltage guaranteed to be recognised as logic 0) 0.8V

Power

Draw a lot of power (individual gates may draw 3 to 4 mA).
Low power Schottky versions of TTL chips (LS) draw only 20% of the power, but are more expensive. 

Inputs

TTL low input sources current into whatever drives it (0.25mA for LS), so whatever is pulling it low must be able to sink current <<<THIS IS A CLASSIC ISSUE TO OVERLOOK!

Outputs

Outputs are saturated transistor to ground in LOW and a darlington follower in HIGH (2 diode drops below V+).
For any TTL or CMOS family, any output should drive at least 10 inputs.

CMOS

"Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Logic"

There are equivalents to most of the TTL chips, with CMOS devices having a 'C' in the middle of the part number: e.g. the 74C04 is the CMOS equivalent to the TTL 7404. 

Basic voltage levels

VOHmin (minimum HIGH output voltage) 4.9V
VOLmax (maximum LOW output voltage) 0.1V
VIHmin (minimum HIGH input voltage guaranteed to be recognised as logic 1) 3.5V
VILmax (maximum LOW input voltage guaranteed to be recognised as logic 0) 1.5V

Power

Much lower in power requirements (drawing about 1 mA).
Operate with a wide range of supply voltages (3 to 18 volts).

Inputs

CMOS draws no input current.
CMOS input threshold usually 1/3 to 2/3 the supply voltage.

Outputs

Outputs are MOSFET and therefore rail to rail.
For any TTL or CMOS family, any output should drive at least 10 inputs.

Family Part Numbers

TTL

74 (no letters, e.g. 7400)

TTL

74LS

Early TTL low power Schottky.  Improved 7400

74ALS

Higher speed, lower power TTL than LS

74AS

74F00

High speed Fast TTL improvement on LS

CMOS

4000B

Classic CMOS family.  Static sensitive 3v to 15v supplies. 0.4mA source sink drive current.

74C

3 to 15 VCC

74HC

2.0 to 6.0 VCC
4mA/6mA Sink/Source
Basic high speed CMOS similar to TTL.
THE HC IS THE BASIC SIMPLE LOGIC GATE CHOICE FOR MANY APPLICATIONS

74HCT

4.5 to 5.5 VCC
4mA/6mA Sink/Source​
The HCT and ACT CMOS families are designed with a low threshold similar to TTL for compatability (since bipolar TTL outputs do not swing all the way to +V). 

74AC

2.0 to 6.0 VCC
24mA Sink/Source drive current.

 

74ACT

4.5 to 5.5 VCC
ACT has TTL compatible inputs.​
Min high level voltage = 2V so these can be used to interface 3V3 IC’s to 5V IC’s.
The HCT and ACT CMOS families are designed with a low threshold similar to TTL for compatability (since bipolar TTL outputs do not swing all the way to +V). 

74ABT

64mA per output, low noise

74FCT

CMOS.  Bus interface devices.  Lower power than 74F due to CMOS technology.
64mA, 48mA Sink Current Capability

74LV

CMOS 3.3v supply

74LVC

CMOS 3.3v supply, faster improved output over LV

74VHC

 

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